Manganese compounds have been used by man for thousands of years. The ancient Egyptians and Romans used manganese compounds for
Manganese compounds have been used by man for thousands of years. The ancient Egyptians and Romans used manganese compounds for dyeing in glass manufacture. In 1774 Johann Gottlieb Gahn succeeded in extracting pure manganese from brownstone. In the structure of the earth's crust manganese is the second most common heavy metal after iron.
Important manganese ore deposits are to be found in South Africa, Australia, India, China, Mexico, Ukraine and Russia amongst others.
"Manganese nodules" can also be found in the deep sea.
Manganese is a grey-white, hard heavy metal. In the air it remains stable by the formation of an oxide film.
Due to its high affinity to sulphur and oxygen it is a vital element for the metal industry.
About 90 to 95% of the produced amount, preferably ferromanganese is used in the iron and steel industry
for deoxidizing and desulphuring iron and steel
as nickel substitute in corrosion-proof stainless steels
as strength-increasing alloy element for steels
in copper-manganese- and copper-nickel-manganese-alloys for temperature-dependent resistances
Nickel-manganese-strips and their applications
as packing rings in apparatus and plant engineering